“Obviously we do not know how the ego arose in man. We have certain myths showing how ancient man thought about this problem, and we can observe the phenomenon in very young children today. Just as the individual child must undergo training and discipline, so too the primitive nature of man had to be housebroken and domesticated, restrained and adapted, if he was to advance in culture and in ability to control his environment.” Esther Harding, Psychic Energy, p. 197.
Since we learned to talk, humans have told stories around the campfire about the inner life of the psyche and the mysterious archetypal energies which indwell it. We call these stories myths. With borrowed images from nature that instinctively aroused strong emotions like fear, awe, passion, wonder, greed, hope and gratitude, myths presented characters, settings, plots and themes that attempted to answer humanity’s most universal and fundamental questions: Why are we here? Who made us? Why do we act the way we do? How can we stay safe? What are we supposed to do and be?
Most of these images—like the sun, the moon, mountains, trees, bears, snakes, unusual stones, springs of fresh water, thunder and lightning—still have emotional power over us. Early humans would not have understood what their fascination with these images said about them. Nonetheless, they resonated so deeply that the stories are still being told.
“Myths are concerned with origins, the fear of death, and the hope for the overcoming of death in another world.” A.S. Byatt, Introduction to Maria Tatar’s “The Annotated Brothers Grimm,” p. xix.
Let us imagine how the Bible’s account of our origins came about. A storyteller wonders where the first parents came from and imagines them being created by a superhuman Father God. Fondly recalling his/her own early carefree days when every need was met by doting parents (Epoch I of self-awareness), our storyteller memorializes this idyllic time in the image of the Garden of Eden, a paradise where humans and animals co-exist in harmony…. as long as everyone obeys Father God.
Early humans would have understood this rule completely. Life was hard, and children who strayed away from camp would be in peril. Parental obedience was essential to their survival.
Other images also called to mind their instinctual need for safety. For example, a gigantic tree could be climbed when danger threatened, and its thick canopy of leaves provided cover from rain. So it made sense to situate a Tree of Life in the center of the Garden. Sometimes tribal rituals were performed around special trees to show gratitude for their protection. So far, so good.
“The further development of the individual can be brought about only by means of symbols which represent something far in advance of himself and whose intellectual meanings cannot yet be grasped entirely.” ~Carl Jung, CW 4, Para 680.
As humans gained more control over their environments, travel and communication with other tribes exposed them to other myths with different images and new symbolic meaning. Whose stories were right and whose were wrong? Which god-images and rituals were good and which were evil? Dualistic thinking had entered the picture.
This advanced the plot further. Enter the forbidden fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Enter Eve who is fascinated by the luscious ripe fruit, symbolizing the psyche’s readiness for a new level of self-awareness. Enter an evil snake who represents a powerful temptation to challenge the status quo. Enter a new problem: seeing and having to choose between opposites. Enter the consequences: after Adam and Eve’s expulsion from the garden, the dire implications of the problem of opposites for the future of humanity was anticipated with the symbolism of Eve giving birth to twin boys, one of whom killed the other.
The symbols speak for themselves. Disobeying the Father God by eating the fruit marked a revolutionary advance in the psyche. What Eve would not have known, and her storyteller probably barely intuited, was that in departing from the collective mentality, she became the mother of Epoch II Ego Consciousness.
“When the ego begins to develop and gains some autonomy—some power, over against the might of nature, to determine and control itself and its environment—it gradually acquires a feeling of being a separate entity. The individual learns to differentiate between the I and the not-I, with an ever increasing emphasis of the value of the I. That is, he becomes aware of being a self. This awareness is accompanied by an intoxicating sense of selfhood, an inner expansion of the I. Unchecked, this will produce an inflation…
“In the outer world the ego seeks to dominate its environment and to subject all things, persons, and conditions alike to its interest. In the inner world, as many psychic contents as possible are brought under its control, and those which cannot be dominated are suppressed. In this way a threshold is built up between the conscious and the unconscious part of the psyche.” Harding, p. 241.
Reblogged this on lampmagician.
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What a beautifully clear and insightful explication of then and now Jeanie thank you … Eve’s vitality in going against the status quo in the Garden was the beginning of the interplay of the opposites and our ongoing grappling with them. Who ever said it would be easy? Hence I suppose our infantile need to categorise life into good bad, light dark, love power etc …
Thank you, Susan. I know you’re very aware of the underlying meaning of this story and how it relates to the ego’s growth. You’ve even written a highly acclaimed book about it. This is a topic you and I could talk about for hours! Maybe one day we’ll get to do that.
In case my readers don’t know about it, here’s the title and link: In Praise of Lilith, Eve and the Serpent in the Garden of Eden & Other Stories, https://www.amazon.com/Praise-Lilith-Serpent-Garden-Stories-ebook/dp/B006W0E83M?ie=UTF8&keywords=in%20praise%20of%20lilith%20eve%20%26%20the%20serpent&qid=1464095794&ref_=sr_1_1&sr=8-1#customerReviews
May that day happen that we can talk for hours and hours Jeanie! Thank you for saying about my book 🙂
Dr Jean, your writing is so profound, with Jungian understanding. You take the complexities of Jung and explain them in a fairytale way for young children, and complex for adults. You are the best writer I know of for this purpose. You hung the moon as far as I’m concerned… Love to you always.
Occasionally I feel like a voice in the wilderness. This morning was one of those times. Your message came as if from an angel. Thank you for listening so carefully to your inner voice and sharing it with others who need to hear it. Love to you always, Jeanie
What a price Eve paid. I was from a non-practicing Christian family but was taught the story of Adam and Eve, demonized apples, power trees, and evil snakes in Sunday School. I’ve done a little more Biblical reading as an adult, but I’m grateful for mythological systems that include Snake Goddesses and idyllic fertility gardens that support life. Reading this, I feel my resistance to the Christian myth, so that’s good to note. And thank you for helping me remember that Eve’s “sin” as an advance for the psyche.
i was raised on the same story. Most people in my family believed it literally. Once my aunt, who knew I thought outside the traditional box, asked me with sincere concern if I thought it was true or not. I waffled a bit not wanting to cause her any sleepless nights worrying about the fate of my soul or hers. I still don’t share my thoughts about these things lightly. There are some fragile egos out there for whom literal religious beliefs provide a lifeline, and I don’t want to be the one to destroy it. I comfort myself knowing they’re not apt to be reading my blog.